Direct & Indirect speech المبـاـشر و غيـر المباشـر
عنـد تحـويـل جمـلة مـن مباشـر إلى غيـر مباشـر نتبع الآتـى :ـ
تغييرات خـارج الأقـواس :ـ
said said tell say to say say
told said to tells says to says says
تحــذف الأقــواس ونـربــط بــ that أو بـدونهــا .
يتغير الزمن داخل الأقـواس إذا كان الفعـل خـارج الأقـواس ماضى كالآتـى .
ماضى تـام مضــارع تــام مـاضى بسيـط مضـارع بسيـط
ماضى تـام ماضى بسيــط ماضى مستمـر مضـارع مستمر
ماضيهـا الأفعـال الناقصة must have + pp must الاستنتاج
wasn't to mustn't didn't have to needn't
must - have to - has to had to
تحـــول الظـروف الزمنية والمكانية كـالآتى :
yesterday the day before - the previous day
tomorrow the next ( following ) day
that day today then now
before ago, last that night tonight
there here the following next
those these that this
He said to me “I will travel to Port Said tomorrow”
He told me that he would travel to port said the next day.
She said to her brother, “I phoned you yesterday”
She told her brother that she had phoned him the day before.
Ahmed said to me, " I have won the prize last week."
Ahmed told me that he had won the prize the week before.
لاحــظ :ـ إذا كـان داخـل الأقـواس أكثـر مـن جمـلة نربـط الأولـى بـ that والثانية نربطهـا بـ and added that
She said “I didn’t attend the party. I must apologize.”
She said that she hadn't attended the party and added that she had to apologize.
يتحـول فعــل القـول إلى :ـ ordered – asked – told – advised
فى الأمــر المثبـت نستخــدم ( المصـدر + to )
He said to his son “study hard.”
He advised his son to study hard.
فى الأمــر المنفـى نستخـدم ( المصـدر + not to )
He said to me “don’t waste your time.”
He advised ( told ) me not to waste my time.
He said tome " Open the door and don't close the window."
He ordered me to open the door and not to close the window.
يتحــول فعــل القــول إلى :ـ asked – wondered - wanted to know
الســؤال المبــدوء بفعــل مســاعـد أو ناقـص تحــذف الأقــواس ونربــط بــ if أو whether
الســؤال المبـدوء بـأداة استفهـــام نربـــط بهــا كمــا هــى وتحــول الجمـله إلى خبـريـة وتحــذف do – does
ويصبـح الفعـل ماضـى بسيــط وتحــذف did ويصبــح الفعــل مـاضـى تــام .
She said to me, “Do you speak English ?”
She asked me if I spoke English ?”
He said to me, “where did you spend your holiday last year ?"
He asked me where I had spent my holiday the year before.
لا يتـم تغييـر ما بداخـل الأقـواس فى هـذه الجمـل لأن ما بداخـل الأقواس حقيقـة علميـة.
Ali said to Ramy, “ The earth is round.”
Al told Ramy that the earth is round.
لأن فعـل القول مضـارع بسيـط .
Rania says, “ I will travel to London.”
Rania says that she will travel to London.
لأن الحـدث قيـل فى الحـال أو قبـل فتـرة بسيطـة.
He said just now, “ No one is allowed to leave.”
He said just now that no one is allowed to leave.
لأن الجمـل شرطيـة لــ if الحالـة الثانيـة أو الثالثـة وبعـد wish / If only .
She said, “ If I had met him, I would have known the news.”
She said that if she had met him, she would have known the news.
He said, “ If I had the money, I would buy a car.”
He said that if he had the money, he would buy a car.
He said,” I wish I got the prize.”
He said he wished he got the prize.
فى جمـل العـرض .
He said, “Can I help you ?"
He offered to help me.
فى جمــل التمنـى .
He said to me, “Have a nice holiday."
She wished me a nice holiday.
فى جمــل الاتهــام .
He said to the servant, “You stole my wallet."
He accused the servant of stealing his wallet.
فى جمـل الاقتـراح .
He said, “Let’s swim"
He suggested swimming. He suggested that they should swim.
His father said, “If you get high mark, I’ll buy you a bike
His father promised to buy him a bike if he got high marks.
The thief said, “I didn’t steal the money
The thief denied stealing the money.
that he had stolen the money.
He said, “I’m sorry I didn’t attend your party
He apologized for not attending my party.
She said to me, “Don’t make noise or I’ll punish you."
She threatened to punish me if I made noise.
He said to his son, “Don’t play with match or you'll get burnt
He warned his son against playing with match or he’d get burnt.
not to play with match or he’d get burnt.
فى جمــل الـوداع مثـل good bye – farewell يحــول فعــل القـول إلى bade .
He said to her, "good bye."
He bade her good bye.
فى جمـل الشكـر يحـول فعــل القــول إلى thanked .
He said to me, "Thank you very much."
He thanked me very much.
إذا جــاءت كلمـة yes تحــذف ويتحــول فعــل القــول إلى agree .
He said to me, "yes, I shall go with you."
He agreed to go with me.
إذا جــاءت كلمـة no تحـذف ويتحــول فعــل القــول إلى refuse .
She said to me, "No, I won't obey your orders."
She refused to obey my orders.
لا تتغيـر بعـض التعبيـرات مثـل would like – would rather – had better .
I said to my friend, " Would you like to go with me to the cinema?"
I asked my friend if he would like to go to the cinema.
يتحــول الفعـل come إلى go إذا جـاء مــع here التى تتحـول إلى there .
He said to me, "come here."
He ordered me to go there.
إذا وجـد بالجمـلة سؤالين أحدهما بأداة استفهـام والآخر بفعـل مساعد
نستعمل أداة الاستفهام كأداة ربط ونستعمـل if فى الجملة الثانية .
She said to me, "Where did you go yesterday ? Can you answer this question ?"
She asked me where I had gone the day before and if I could answer that question.
إذا وجـد بالجملـة سؤال وجملـة خبريـة يوضـع قبل السؤال asked وقبل الجملـة الخبريـة said – told .
He said, "You can solve your problems. Will you follow my advice?
He said that I could solve my problems and asked if I would follow his advice.
إذا بـدأت الجمـلة داخـل الأقـواس بــ If الإفتـراضيـة تحـول كـالآتى :
advise + مـفعـول + to + المصــدر مـن جــواب الشــرط
He said, " If I were you, I would buy a car."
He advised me to buy a car.
تحــول must إلى had to فى المـاضـى .
He said, " I must study hard."
He said that he had to study hard.
لا تتحـول must إذا كـانـت تـدل على وجـوب دائـم .
She said, "Children must obey their parents."
She said that children must obey their parents.
تحــول must إلى would have to فى المستقبــل .
He said, " I must go to Cairo tomorrow.
He said that he would have to go to Cairo tomorrow.
إذا كانـت الجمــلة داخـل الأقـواس تعبـر عــن دعـوة تتحـول كالآتـى :ـ + فـاعــل offer مفعــول +
He said to me, "would you like to have a drink ?"
He offered me a drink. Or He asked me if I would like to have a drink.
تحــول couldn't إلى wasn't allowed to .
He said to me, "I couldn't interrupt my parents."
He said to me that he wasn't allowed to interrupt his parents.