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    عدد المساهمات : 1689
    تاريخ التسجيل : 12/10/2010

    مُساهمةموضوع: SOCIOLINGUISTICS   الخميس مايو 19, 2011 2:05 am

    SOCIOLINGUISTICS


    Sociolinguistics is the study between language and society.
    Sociolinguistics is the study of inter relationships of language and
    social structure, linguistics variation and attitudes toward language.
    It is any set of linguistics form which pattern according to social
    factors.
    The study of sociolinguistics also focuses on the language variations
    that emerge in the society. For example, the way of how to speak of a
    group of students is different from the way of a group of bus drivers.

    Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of
    society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way
    language is used.
    Sociolinguistics divided into two:
    1. Micro-sociolinguistics

    The study of language in relation to society deals with small group of people in certain community. Example: meeting.
    2. macro-sociolinguistics
    The study of language related to how the society treats the language.


    Fundamental Concepts in Sociolinguistics
    1. Speech Community
    Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that describes a more
    or less discrete group of people who use language in a unique and
    mutually accepted way among themselves.
    Speech communities can be members of a profession with a specialized
    jargon, distinct social groups like high school students or hip hop
    fans, or even tight-knit groups like families and friends. Members of
    speech communities will often develop slang or jargon to serve the
    group's special purposes and priorities.
    For example, your book Language Files gives you an example of speech
    from an older man with many well known characteristics of Appalachian
    English:
    1) I used to could read. (double modal)
    2) I ain't no girl now. (multiple negation)
    3) He has a broken back ____ was never set. ("that" deletion)
    4) Put some bakin' sody on it. (sody instead of soda)
    5) I fell upside of the building. (lexical substitution--upside of for against the side of)
    What they point out, though, is that the speaker is a native of Southern
    Ohio, not actually a native of Appalachia. And his speech is affected
    by factors such as age, sex, and socio-economic status.

    2. High prestige and low prestige varieties
    Crucial to sociolinguistic analysis is the concept of prestige; certain
    speech habits are assigned a positive or a negative value which is then
    applied to the speaker. This can operate on many levels.

    3. Social network
    Understanding language in society means that one also has to understand
    the social networks in which language is embedded. A social network is
    another way of describing a particular speech community in terms of
    relations between individual members in a community. A network could be
    loose or tight depending on how members interact with each other
    (Wardhaugh, 2002:126-127).

    4. Internal vs. external language
    In Chomskian linguistics, a distinction is drawn between I-language
    (internal language) and E-language (external language). In this context,
    internal language applies to the study of syntax and semantics in
    language on the abstract level; as mentally represented knowledge in a
    native speaker. External language applies to language in social
    contexts, i.e. behavioral habits shared by a community.
    LANGUAGE, DIALECT, AND VARIETIES
    Language and dialect is an ambiguous term (Hougen: 1966). Common people
    see a dialect as non prestigious variety of language. Scholars see
    language and dialect as confusing term.
    Hougen (1966) stated a dialect is language that is excluded for polite society.
    1. Criteria of language:
    2. Standardization
    3. Vitality: living community of speakers
    4. Historicity: sense of identity; social, political, religious, ethnicities.
    5. Autonomy: different from other language.
    6. Reduction: a particular variety maybe regarded as a sub-variety rather than as an independent entity. Ex: Pidgin.
    7. Mixture: purity
    8. De Facto norms: Good speaker Vs Poor speaker.
    Dialect is subordinate variety of language.

    VERNACULAR LANGUAGE
    Vernacular : 1st language I multilingual community, especially informal function.
    Components of vernacular:
    1. Uncodified / unstandardized variety
    2. The way is acquired, example at home
    3. Circumscribed functions
    Vernacular is the most colloquial variety in a person’s linguistics repertoire. It used for everyday interact.

    LINGUA FRANCA
    Lingua francas is language of wider community. Lingua Franca is a
    language used for communication between 2 people whom the 1st language
    is different.

    PIDGIN
    A pidgin is a language having no native speaker. A pidgin develops as a
    means of communication between people who do not have a common language.
    Pidgin is two groups with different language communicating in a situation where there is also a third dominant language.
    'The syntax of Pidgins can be quite unlike the languages from which
    terms were borrowed and modified, as can be seen in this example from an
    earlier stage of Tok PisiTn:
    Baimbai hed bilongyu i-arrait gain
    (by and by) (head) (belong you) (he-alright) (again)
    ‘Your head will soon get well again’'

    CREOLE
    It is a pidgin that has become the first language of a new generation of
    speakers. Creoles arise when Pidgin become mother
    tongues.(Aitchison:1994)
    The process of pidginization (simplification of language) through:
    1. Reduction in morphology
    2. Reduction in syntax
    3. Reduction in pronounciation
    4. Extensive borrowing of words from local mother-tongue.
    The process of creolization:
    1. Expansion of morphology and syntax
    2. Regularization of the phonology
    3. Increase function
    4. Increase vocabulary
    Example:
     Hawaian pidgin English Superstrate
    Hawaian creole English substrate

    DIGLOSSIA
    Diglossia is a characteristic of speech communities rather than
    individual. Individuals may be bilingual. Societies or communities are
    diglossic. In other words, the term diglossia describes societal or
    institutionalized bilingualism, where two varieties are require to cover
    all the community’s domains
    In the narrow and original sense of the term. Diglossia has three crucial features or criteria:
    1.Two distinct varieties of the same language are used in the community,
    with one regarded as a high ( or H ) variety and the other a low ( or L
    ).
    2.Each variety is used for quite distinct function; H and L complement each other
    3.No one uses the H variety in everyday conversation.

    Another post: (no time to edit..)
    Diglossia
    Diglossia refers to speech community in which two or more varieties of
    the same language are used by some speakers under different conditions
    (Fergusson, 1996: 25). Speakers of a particular language can not be
    characterized as diglossic; only their behavior, or the behavior of the
    speech community can be considered diglossic. Thus, beliefs and
    attitudes about the language condition the maintenance of diglossia as a
    fact of linguistic culture. Habit, attitude, and values in a society
    are completing one another in order to avoid experience conflicts
    because of language. Diglossic situation exists if it has two distinct
    codes which show clear functional separation (Wardhaugh, 1998: 87). In
    each situation there is a ‘high’ variety (H) of language and a ‘low’
    variety (L) which each variety has its own specialized functions, and
    each is viewed differently by those who are aware of both. For example
    in Switzerland situation, there are standard German (H) and Swiss German
    (L). Ferguson (in Wardhaugh, 1998: 87).

    Fergusson differentiates a language into high language (H) for formal
    and serious matter and low language (L) for conversation and other
    informal uses. H relates to religion, education, high culture and L used
    at homeand at factory (1996: 27). Whereas Eggenwil (in Holmes, 1992:
    32) defines that diglossia has three significant features or criteria:
    1. Two distinct varieties of the same language are used in the
    community, with one regarded as a high (or H) variety and the other a
    low (or L) variety.
    2. Each variety is used for quite distinct functions; H and l complement each other.
    3. No one use the H variety in everyday conversation.

    Those two varieties are close linguistically related in some cases than
    others. For example, the degree of difference in the pronunciation of H
    and L varies from place to place. The sounds of Swiss German are quite
    different from those of Standard German. The grammar of H is
    morphologically more complicated. Standard German uses more case markers
    on nouns and tense inflections on verbs than Swiss German, and standard
    French, the H variety in Haiti, uses more markers of number and gender
    on nouns than the L variety in Haitian Creole.

    Holmes states that diglossia has been described as a stable situation.
    It is possible for two varieties to continue to exist side by side for
    centuries. For example, England was diglossic (in the broad sense) after
    1066 when the Normans were in control. French was the language of the
    court, administration, the legal system, and high society in general.
    English was the language of the peasants in the fields and the streets.
    For example in the following words,

    English French English
    ox boeuf beef
    sheep mouton mutton
    calf veau veal
    pig porc pork

    The English calf becomes French veau as it moves from the farm to the
    dinner table. However, by the end of the 14th century English has
    displaced French, while absorbing huge numbers of French such as beef,
    mutton, veal, and pork, so there were no longer domains in which French
    was the appropriate language to use. In conclusion, diglossia is used to
    describe complementary code use in all communities. In all speech
    communities people use different varieties or codes in formal contexts,
    as opposed to relaxed casual situations. In other words, the variety at
    the formal end of the scale could be regarded as an H variety, while the
    most casual variety could be regarded as an L variety.

    References
    Fergusson, C. A. 1996. Sociolinguistic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Holmes, Janet. 1992. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
    Wardhaugh, Ronald. 1998. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. USA: Blackwell Publishers Inc.
    BILINGUALISM AND MULTILINGUALISM
    Bilingualism is an individual’s ability to use more than one language
    variety. Individual bilingualism use of more that one languages or
    competence in more that one languages (Clyne:1997). Multilingualism is
    an individual’s ability to use many languages.
    Mother Togue
    1. Language passed on by an individual’s mother
    2. Language known best
    3. Language of the heart
    Researcher call mother tongue as first language (L1). Meanwhile second
    language (L2) is language learned after one’s first either out of
    necessity or by personal choice, to fulfill some special purpose;
    individual may or may not speak it as well as first language.
    Triglossia
    The societies have two high languages and one low language. Example:
    Malaysia have two High languages such as Melayu and English, and one low
    language, it is Low Malay.

    Code Switching
    Code-switching is a term in linguistics to refer to the use of more than
    one language or variety in conversation. People switch the code on
    purpose. There must be some reasons of changing into another language.
    When they unpurposedly use more than one language in one speech, it is
    called code mixing.

    ETHNOGRAPHY OF COMMUNICATION
    Ethnography of communication is related to language. It was introduced
    by Dell Hymes (ethnography of speaking). It studied base on speech
    community.
    Speech community is a group of people that tied with at least one language / variety language and they also have norms.
    Speech community consists of:
    1. Ways of speaking; it is tied by norm. It is the most general or primitive term.
    2. Speech situation; it is not related with speech but it’s a kind of
    umbrella. Many situations associated with or marked by the absence of
    speech. Example: Javanese wedding party: ceremonies, meal, etc.
    3. Speech event; it is activities or aspect of activities that are
    directly governed by rules or norms for the use of speech. Example: In
    Javanese wedding party. There is speech event hat related to language,
    such as atur pambagyo and ular-ular.
    4. Speech act; it is not related to sentence and grammatical level but
    it implicates both linguistics and social norms. Example: ular-ular in
    Javanese wedding party is giving advice to the couple, joke and even
    singing traditional songs.
    They are having close relationship.

    Component of Speech: SPEAKING
    a. Setting and Scene: place or location and psychological setting
    b. Participant: speaker-listener and addressee-addressor
    c. Ends: Outcomes and goal (particular occasion)
    d. Act: form and content (what is said)
    e. Key: tone and manner (serious, sarcastic, etc)
    f. Instrumentalities: choice of channel (oral, written)
    g. Norms: interaction and interpretation
    h. Genres: Types of Utterances ( poems, proverbs, prayers, etc

    _________________
    صلى الله على محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم
    سبحان الله وبحمده، سبحان الله العظيم
    الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
     
    SOCIOLINGUISTICS
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