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      Adverbs and Adverb Clauses

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 12/10/2010

    مُساهمةموضوع: Adverbs and Adverb Clauses   الجمعة أبريل 29, 2011 7:25 am

    Adverbs and Adverb Clauses
    - Adverbs









    There are many types of adverbs and adverb phrases. This page will introduce
    some of the basic types of adverbs and their functions.



    What is an adverb?



    Basically, most adverbs tell you how, where, or when something is
    done. In other words, they describe the manner,
    place, or
    time
    of an action. Here are some examples:













    Type Adverb
    Example
    Manner slowly Jane drives slowly.
    Place here The
    party is going to take place here.
    Time
    yesterday
    I
    called him yesterday.











    How to recognize an adverb



    Many adverbs end with the suffix -LY. Most of these are created by
    adding -LY to the end of an adjective, like this:












    Adjective
    Adverb
    slow
    slowly

    delightful

    delightfully

    hopeless

    hopelessly

    aggressive

    aggressively









    However, this is NOT a reliable way to find out whether a word is
    an adverb or not, for two reasons: many adverbs do NOT end in -LY (some are
    the same as the adjective form), and many words which are NOT adverbs DO end
    in -LY (such as kindly,
    friendly,
    elderly
    and lonely, which are adjectives).
    Here are some examples of adverbs which are the same as adjectives:









    Adjective
    Adverb
    fast
    fast
    late
    late
    early
    early







    The best way to tell if a word is an adverb is to try making a
    question, for which the answer is the word. If the question uses
    how,
    where
    or when, then the word is probably
    an adverb. Here is an example:

    Word
    in context

    Question

    Adverb?
    Junko
    plays tennis aggressively.

    How
    does Junko play tennis?
    Yes
    -- uses HOW.
    They
    have a small house.

    What kind of house do they have?
    No
    -- uses WHAT KIND OF, so this is an adjective.

    Matthew called the police immediately.

    When did Matthew call the police?
    Yes
    -- uses WHEN.













    Adverbs and Adverb Clauses
    - Adverb Phrases










    An adverb may be a single word, such as
    quickly,
    here or
    yesterday. However, adverbs can also be phrases, some made with
    prepositions, others made with infinitives. This page will explain the basic
    types of adverb phrases (sometimes called "adverbial phrases") and how to
    recognize them.



    Basic types of adverbs



    In the section on adverbs, you learned about three basic types of adverb:
    manner,
    place and
    time adverbs. There are at least two
    more that are important. Frequency adverbs answer the question "How
    often?" about an action. Purpose adverbs answer the question "Why?".
    Here are some examples:










    Type Adverb
    Example

    Frequency

    usually
    Mika usually gets up early.

    Purpose
    for
    fun
    I
    write computer programs for fun.








    While the first example,
    usually,
    is a single word, the second example (for fun)
    is a phrase consisting of a preposition and a noun -- in other words, it is
    a prepositional phrase which
    functions as an adverb phrase.

    Adverb phrases made with prepositions



    All kinds of adverb phrases can be made with prepositions. Here are
    some examples:




    Type Adverb
    phrase

    Example
    Manner with a
    hammer
    The
    carpenter hit the nail with a hammer.
    Place next
    door
    The
    woman who lives next door is a doctor.
    Time before
    the holidays
    We
    must finish our project before the holidays.

    Frequency
    every
    month
    Jodie buys two CDs every month.

    Purpose
    for
    his mother
    Jack bought the flowers for his mother.

    Adverb phrases made with infinitives



    Another kind of adverb phrase can be made with the infinitive form
    of a verb. Most of these phrases express purpose, as in these examples:



    Type Adverb
    phrase

    Example

    Purpose
    to buy
    a car
    I'm
    saving my money to buy a car.

    Purpose
    to
    support the team
    The
    students all showed up to support the team.

    Purpose
    to
    show to her mother
    Sally brought a painting home from school to show to her mother.


















    Adverbs and Adverb Clauses
    - Adverb Clauses










    An adverb may be a single word such as
    quickly,
    here or
    yesterday (see the page Adverbs), or a phrase such as
    the day before
    yesterday or to see my mother (see the page Adverb Phrases).
    However, adverbs can also be clauses, containing a subject and a full verb.
    This page will explain the basic types of adverb clauses (sometimes called
    "adverbial clauses") and how to recognize them.



    Adverbs, adverb phrases, and adverb clauses



    Look at these sentences:


    I saw
    the movie yesterday.
    I saw
    the movie on Friday.
    I saw
    the movie before I left for Calgary.


    In the first sentence, "yesterday" is a one-word adverb, "on
    Friday" is an adverb phrase, and "before I left for Calgary" is an adverb
    clause. All of them answer the question "When?", but the adverb clause has a
    subject ("I") and a full verb ("left"). It is introduced by "before", so it
    is a dependent clause. This means
    that it cannot stand alone: "Before I left for Calgary" would not be a full
    sentence. It needs a main clause ("I saw the movie"). An adverb clause,
    then, is a dependent clause that does the same job as an adverb or an adverb
    phrase.

    Types of adverb clause



    There are many types of adverb clauses. Here are some examples of
    the most common types:






















    Type
    Question answered

    Example
    Place Where?
    Wherever there are computers, there is Microsoft software.
    Time When?
    After the fruit is harvested, it is sold at the market.
    Cause Why?
    (What caused this?)
    I
    didn't call her because I'm shy.

    Purpose
    Why?
    (What was the reason for doing this?)
    She
    took a computer course so that she could get a better job.

    Concession
    Why is
    this unexpected?

    Although Jay has a Master's degree, he works as a store clerk.

    Condition
    Under
    what conditions?

    If
    you save your money, you will be able to go to college.




















    As you can see from the examples above, most adverb clauses can
    be recognized because they are introduced by a particular word or phrase
    (such as "when", "so that", etc.). These words and phrases are called
    subordinating conjunctions, and
    there are many of them, including these:




    Subordination conjunctions

    after, before, until, while, because, since, as, so that, in
    order that, if, unless, whether, though, although, even though,
    where

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    Adverbs and Adverb Clauses
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