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 IF Conditionals

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عدد المساهمات : 1689
تاريخ التسجيل : 12/10/2010

مُساهمةموضوع: IF Conditionals   الجمعة أبريل 29, 2011 7:18 am

IF Conditionals









Structure of Conditional Sentences



The structure of most conditionals is very simple. There are two basic
possibilities. Of course, we add many words and can use various tenses, but
the basic structure is usually like this:
IF condition result
IF y = 10 2y = 20

or like this:
result IF condition
2y = 20 IF y = 10







First Conditional: real possibility



We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a
particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this
condition. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen. For
example, it is morning. You are at home. You plan to play tennis this
afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What
will you do?

IF condition result
present simple WILL + base verb
If it rains I will stay at home.

Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not
raining yet. But the sky is cloudy and you think that it could rain. We use
the present simple tense to talk about the possible future condition. We use
WILL + base verb to talk about the possible future result. The important
thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility that
the condition will happen. Here are some more examples (do you remember the
two basic structures: [IF condition result] and [result IF condition]?):
IF condition result
present simple WILL + base verb
If I see Mary I will tell her.
If Tara is free tomorrow he will invite her.
If they do not pass their exam their teacher will be sad.
If it rains tomorrow will you stay at home?
If it rains tomorrow what will you do?




result IF condition
WILL + base verb present simple
I will tell Mary if I see her.
He will invite Tara if she is free tomorrow.
Their teacher will be sad if they do not pass their exam.
Will you stay at home if it rains tomorrow?
What will you do if it rains tomorrow?






Second Conditional: unreal possibility or dream




The second conditional is like the first conditional. We are still
thinking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition in
the future, and the result of this condition. But there is not a real
possibility that this condition will happen. For example, you do not have a
lottery ticket. Is it possible to win? No! No lottery ticket, no win! But
maybe you will buy a lottery ticket in the future. So you can think about
winning in the future, like a dream. It's not very real, but it's still
possible.
IF condition result
past simple WOULD + base verb
If I won the lottery I would buy a car.

Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. We use the past
simple tense to talk about the future condition. We use WOULD + base verb to
talk about the future result. The important thing about the second
conditional is that there is an unreal possibility that the condition will
happen.

Here are some more examples:
IF condition result
past simple WOULD + base verb
If I married Mary I would be happy.
If Ram became rich she would marry him.
If it snowed next July would you be surprised?
If it snowed next July what would you do?




result IF condition
WOULD + base verb past simple
I would be happy if I married Mary.
She would marry Ram if he became rich.
Would you be surprised if it snowed next July?
What would you do if it snowed next July?






Third Conditional: no possibility




The first conditional and second conditionals talk about the future.
With the third conditional we talk about the past. We talk about a condition
in the past that did not happen. That is why there is no possibility for
this condition. The third conditional is also like a dream, but with no
possibility of the dream coming true.

Last week you bought a lottery ticket. But you did not win. :-(

condition result
Past Perfect WOULD HAVE + Past Participle
If I had won the lottery I would have bought a car.

Notice that we are thinking about an impossible past condition. You
did not win the lottery. So the condition was not true, and that particular
condition can never be true because it is finished. We use the past perfect
tense to talk about the impossible past condition. We use WOULD HAVE + past
participle to talk about the impossible past result. The important thing
about the third conditional is that both the condition and result are
impossible now.

Sometimes, we use
should have,
could have,
might have instead of
would
have, for example: If you had bought a lottery ticket, you
might have
won.




Look at some more examples in the tables below:
IF condition result
past perfect WOULD HAVE + past participle
If I had seen Mary I would have told her.
If Tara had been free yesterday I would have invited her.
If they had not passed their exam their teacher would have been sad.
If it had rained yesterday would you have stayed at home?
If it had rained yesterday what would you have done?




result IF condition
WOULD HAVE + past participle past perfect
I would have told Mary if I had seen her.
I would have invited Tara if she had been free yesterday.
Their teacher would have been sad if they had not passed their exam.
Would you have stayed at home if it had rained yesterday?
What would you have done if it had rained yesterday?






Zero Conditional: certainty




We use the so-called zero conditional when the result of the condition
is always true, like a scientific fact.

Take some ice. Put it in a saucepan. Heat the saucepan. What
happens? The ice melts (it becomes water). You would be surprised if it did
not.

IF condition result
present simple present simple
If you heat ice it melts.

Notice that we are thinking
about a result that is always true for this condition. The result of the
condition is an absolute certainty. We are not thinking about the future or
the past, or even the present. We are thinking about a simple fact. We use
the present simple tense to talk about the condition. We also use the
present simple tense to talk about the result. The important thing about the
zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result
.

We can also use
when instead of
if, for example:
When I get up late I miss
my bus.




Look at some more examples in the tables below:
IF condition result
present simple present simple
If I miss the 8 o'clock bus I am late for work.
If I am late for work my boss gets angry.
If people don't eat they get hungry.
If you heat ice does it melt?




result IF condition
present simple present simple
I am late for work if I miss the 8 o'clock bus.
My boss gets angry if I am late for work.
People get hungry if they don't eat.
Does ice melt if you heat it?






Conditionals: Summary




Here is a chart to help you to visualize the basic English
conditionals. Do not take the 50% and 10% figures too literally. They are
just to help you.

probability conditional example time
100% ------ zero conditional If you heat ice, it melts. any time
50% --- first conditional If it rains, I will stay at home. future
10% - second conditional If I won the lottery, I would buy a car. future
0%
third conditional If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a car. past

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IF Conditionals
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
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