مشارك مميز مع مرتبة الشرف
عدد المساهمات : 1689
تاريخ التسجيل : 12/10/2010
|موضوع: Punctuation - Using Commas الجمعة أبريل 29, 2011 7:17 am|| |
Using Commas Using Commas Introduction The comma is one of the most important punctuation marks in
English, but it is often used incorrectly. This page will introduce two of
the most common uses of the comma: the
use, and theconjoining
use. 1. The listing use When you write a sentence containing a list of items, you
need to use a comma to separate the items. For example: He brought coffee, sandwiches, cheese and
soda. This sentence contains a list of four items. There are commas
after coffee and
sandwiches, to separate the items.
After cheese, the word
and is used instead; however,
you can also include a comma BEFORE
if you like: He brought coffee, sandwiches, cheese, and
soda. This comma is optional. However, you MUST include the word
. The items in our example are all nouns, but almost anything
can form a list in this way. Here are some more examples:
2. The conjoining use
Type of list item Example
|Noun ||He brought coffee, sandwiches, cheese |
|Verb ||She caught, cleaned, cooked and served |
|Adjective ||The weather today is cool, dry and |
|Verb phrase ||I closed the door, started the car, |
pulled out of the driveway, and switched on the radio.
|Clause ||Mayuki made the sushi, Yung-Hee cooked |
the meat, and Izabella chopped the vegetables.
When you join two clauses together with a coordinating conjunction
(such as and
, and or
comma is usually placed before the conjunction:
It was raining, so I took my umbrella.
Here are examples using the most important coordinating conjunctions.
You can get more information about coordinating conjunctions on the
Basic Coordinating Conjunctions page.
3. Reversing the order of clauses With conjunctions (such as
|and ||He lives in Victoria, and he studies |
|but ||John is Canadian, but Sally is |
|or ||I could cook some supper, or we could |
order a pizza.
|so ||She was sick, so she went to the |
and though) the dependent
clause (the part beginning with the conjunction) can also come at the
beginning of the sentence. In this case (and ONLY in this case), a comma
can be used to join the two clauses together. Here are some examples:
Conjunction Normal order Reversed order
|because ||He doesn't need a car because he |
|Because he lives downtown, he doesn't |
need a car.
|since ||She went to the art gallery since the |
museum was closed.
|Since the museum was closed, she went |
to the art gallery.
|while ||Gerry is married while Cam is single. |
|While Cam is single, Gerry is married. |
صلى الله على محمد صلى الله عليه وسلمسبحان الله وبحمده، سبحان الله العظيم